What is Metabolism?
This word, “metabolism,” is thrown around a lot these days.
If yours is too slow, you might gain weight. But what exactly does this all mean?
Well, technically, “metabolism” is the word to describe all of the biochemical reactions in your body. It’s how you take in nutrients and oxygen and use them to fuel everything you do.
Your body has an incredible ability to grow, heal, and generally stay alive. Without this amazing biochemistry, you would not be possible.
Metabolism dictates how the cells in your body:
- Allow activities you can control (e.g. physical activity with exercise, work, and general activites of daily living);
- Allow activities you can’t control (e.g. heart beat, wound healing, processing of nutrients and toxins, etc.);
- Allow storage of excess energy for later.
So, when you put all of these processes together into your metabolism, you can understand that these processes can work too quickly, too slowly, or just right. Kinda like that Three Bears story when you were a kid! <ahem> But let’s get back to the topic of “metabolic rate.”
This term refers to how fast your metabolism works and is measured in calories (yup, back to those calories!).
The calories you eat can go to one of three places:
- Work (i.e. exercise and other activity).
- Heat (i.e. from all those biochemical reactions).
- Storage (i.e. extra leftover “unburned” calories stored as fat. The part of metabolism that bothers us the most – let’s be honest here).
You already know that the the more calories you burn as work or creating heat the easier it is to lose weight and keep it off, simply because there will be fewer “leftover” calories to store for later.
There are a couple of different ways to measure metabolic rate. One is the “resting metabolic rate,” (RMR) which is how much energy your body uses when you’re not being physically active.
The other is the “total daily energy expenditure” (TDEE) which measures both the resting metabolic rate as well as the energy used for “work” (e.g. exercise) throughout a 24-hour period.
What affects your metabolic rate?
Ummmm – a lot!
The first thing you might think of is your thyroid. This gland at the front of your throat releases hormones to tell your body to “speed up” your metabolism. The more thyroid hormone there is, the faster things will work and the more calories you’ll burn.
But that’s not the only thing that affects your metabolic rate.
How big you are counts too!
Larger people have higher metabolic rates; but your body composition is crucial!
Muscles that actively move and do work need more energy than fat does. So the more lean muscle mass you have, the more energy your body will burn, and the higher your metabolic rate will be. Even when you’re not working out. Did you get that? EVEN WHEN YOU’RE NOT EXERCISING.
Muscle is very expensive to maintain from a metabolism standpoint. This is exactly why weight training is often recommended as a part of a weight loss program. You want that muscle to be burning those calories for you. And as we age, muscle becomes even more important.
The thing is, when people lose weight their metabolic rate often slows down, something you don’t want to happen. So you definitely want to offset that with more muscle mass.
Aerobic exercise also temporarily increases your metabolic rate. Your muscles are burning fuel to move so they’re doing “work”.
The type of food you eat also affects your metabolic rate!
Your body actually burns calories to absorb, digest, and metabolize your food. This is called the “thermic effect of food” (TEF).
You can use TEF to your advantage when you understand how your body metabolizes foods differently.
Fats, for example increase your TEF by 0-3%; carbs increase it by 5-10%, and protein increases it by 15-30%. By trading some of your fat or carbs for lean protein you can slightly increase your metabolic rate.
Another bonus of protein is that your muscles need protein to grow. By working them out and feeding them what they need they will help you to lose weight and keep it off.
Last but not least, don’t forget the mind-body connection. There is plenty of research showing the influence things like stress and sleep have on the metabolic rate.
This is just the tip of the iceberg when it comes to metabolism and how so many different things can work to increase (or decrease) your metabolic rate, but it’s a good place to start learning about it. So build that muscle!